The present participles are verb forms in -ing used as adjectives. It is mostly used to modify nouns. its function in a sentence 3. What Are Gerunds? Quick & Dirty Tips™ and related trademarks appearing on this website are the property of Mignon Fogarty, Inc. and Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. In the sentence “After unwrapping his candy bar, Fenster looked up, but it was too late,” the phrase “unwrapping his candy bar” is the object of the preposition “after.” As the object of a preposition, this is a gerund phrase. The present participle expresses the state of being or an action, as it is based on a verb. Gerund phrase ? 2. Ex. Gerund phrase ? A gerund is easy to spot in any sentence provided you know how it functions. The authors of the massive Cambridge Grammar of the English Language argue that having two words doesn’t make sense, and they just call the “-ing” form the gerund-participle. Notice the subtle change in meaning between the two sentences in each pair. A gerund is a verb in its ing (present participle) form that functions as a noun that names an activity rather than a person or thing. Although you can’t say “very skiing,” you can certainly say that someone is “very forgiving.” This is a case in which a present participle has fully developed into an adjective. its word-form (formation ofwords) 2. Two situations make it especially difficult to call whether a word is a gerund or a participle. For example: They’ve have been working for four hours. It may be worth remembering that a gerund always functions as a noun: event : evt, In these sentences, the present participle or "ing" verb does the job of an adjective by modifying or describing the noun. Copyright © 2020 Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. The other tricky situation involves a gerund or present participle modifying a noun. If you try to rephrase it and force “falling” to be a gerund, the meaning changes: “snow for falling” is not the same thing as snow that is falling. For example, “credit” is a noun, even in the compound noun “credit card.” So let’s take an example like “skiing vacation.” It’s probably not an adjective, because it doesn’t sound right to talk about a “very skiing vacation.” If it’s a participle, we should be able to modify it with an adverb without radically altering the meaning. Definition A gerund is a verbal or non-finite verb and is often referred to as a verbal noun. 1. As an Amazon Associate and a Bookshop.org Affiliate, QDT earns from qualifying purchases. If the -ing form begins the sentence, or follows a verb or preposition, that’s the gerund. play > playing, cry > crying, bark > barking; For verbs that end in e, remove the e and add ing. Therefore, “skiing” in this case is not a participle, but a gerund. window.mc4wp = window.mc4wp || { Since it is a verb, it can not be qualified by an adjective, nor preceded by an article, but, like other forms of the verb, it can be modified by an adverb and take a complement . 13. A gerund accompanied by its objects, complements, and/or modifiers is called a gerund phrase or simply a noun phrase.Like nouns, gerunds and gerund phrases can function as subjects, objects, or complements in a sentence.Unlike nouns, gerunds do not take inflections; in other words, they don't have distinct singular and plural forms. If you find a form of “be” followed by the -ing form, that’s the present participle. Morphology i.e. The “-ing” verb in progressive tenses is a participle. Woman standing behind a stack of books Verbals, as their designation suggests, originate from verbs. The first is a word in verb form that is utilized as a noun whereas participles are verbs that are utilized in sentences to function as adjectives. Gerund: swimmingExample of present participle in use: 1. ‘Skiing’ looks like an adjective in the verb phrase ‘was skiing’.” It’s true that you could replace “skiing” with a bona fide adjective, such as “happy,” and still have a grammatical sentence. Jumping is fun.. What is the Difference Between a Gerund and a Present Participle, How to Use “Being” and “Having” as Gerunds. Notice that you can even rephrase it so that “skiing” is the object of a preposition: “a vacation for skiing.” This clinches the case that “skiing” is a gerund here. Just remember they're not the only players in the game ending in -ing. its meaning 1. Both a gerund and a present participle are a progressive form of … Gerunds, Infinitives and Participles Online Quiz - Following quiz provides Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) related to Gerunds, Infinitives and Participles. Gerund: Dying is … Get Grammar Pop today in the iPad App Store. © 2019 Portland English Language Academy. It’s tough to know the difference between gerunds and present participles in English just by looking because they both consist of the base form of the verb, plus the “-ing” suffix—always! Thanks, Neal. “Happy” can do things as an adjective that “skiing” can’t. When snowboarding is a present participle, it is part of a continuous verb tense. To work through another example, take the phrase “falling snow.” You can’t say “very falling snow,” so it’s probably not an adjective. A gerund is not the same thing as a present participle even though both terms end in “-ing.” A gerund always acts as a noun. Participial phrase; She believes in GIVING HER WHOLE HEART. Present Participles vs. Gerunds. If you would like to listen to the audio, please use Google Chrome or Firefox. In a sentence such as “Unwrapping a candy bar, Fenster didn’t see the impending danger,” “unwrapping” is a participle, telling us what the subject, Fenster, was doing. window.mc4wp.listeners.push( Definition. For example, I could say , “Skiing with my husband on a weekday while everyone else is working is awesome.” The simple subject is just “skiing,” but the complete subject is “skiing with my husband on a weekday while everyone else is working.”, Now let’s move on to present participles. A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective, as in "the shivering woman reached for a sweater" or "the galloping horses thundered past." “Aardvark was happy when you called.” But look closer. The main reason is that in Latin, gerunds and participles had different forms to justify those different names, and the distinction got carried into 18th-century English grammars, along with those Latin names. The object of the gerund is coins. In English, participles end in -en (fallen), -ed (killed), -t (slept), or -ing (thinking). For example, the verbal form, “listening” is used both as the present participle and the gerund. Gerund vs Participle. Present participle: swimming 3. What is the difference between a gerund and a present participle? Note that a present participle can refer to the present, past or future. Here, “swimming” functions as a noun and subject of the sentence. Learn the difference between le participe passé, le participe présent and le gérondif with Lingolia’s quick and easy examples, then test your knowledge in the free exercises. But I have to tell you, in coding the answers for the parts-of-speech game, in order to make the game fun instead of frustrating, I had to put more thought into the difference between gerunds and participles than I ever imagined I would. It’s $1.99 and it’s the full game—no annoying in-app purchases. Subscribe to our e-mail newsletter to receive updates. He liked skiing.. (function() { In phrases like “a very forgiving teacher” or “an unforgiving landscape,” or a sentence like “Squiggly is quite forgiving when it comes to table manners involving salt,” “forgiving” is an adjective rather than a participle. He had a unique way of whistling.. ? She had a suggestion to offer. Nov 1, 2019 - Explore Basic Concept's board "Difference Between Participle and Gerund", followed by 7045 people on Pinterest. Do you, sometimes, get confused between a gerund and a present participle? With just one small change, though, “unwrapping” becomes a … When-ing forms are used like nouns, they are called gerunds. Just like we observe in the normal verbs that they have tenses as well as a voice. Notes. Gerunds vs. A definite type of present participle can be gerunds. Should it be "You" or "Your" with Gerunds. Do vs. Be: Are You Confused? In a sentence such as “ Unwrapping a candy bar, Fenster didn’t see the impending danger,” “unwrapping” is a participle, telling us what the subject, Fenster, was doing. How Do I Use Slang, Idioms, & Other Tricky Words. Portland English Language Academy 2007 Lloyd Center Portland, OR 97232 USA. Exercise. One is when you have a gerund or participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence. A gerund acts like a noun while a present participle acts like a verb or adjective. Gerund and present participle difference. To jump is fun. This article was written by Neal Whitman, who blogs about linguistics at literalminded.wordpress.com. Now YOU try: Look at the sentences below. forms: { Show all questions <= => I saw him LYING ON THE BEACH. We are currently experiencing playback issues on Safari. Difference between Gerund and participle examples. So that’s the topic we’re going to talk about today. However, there is a very easy way to decide if a word is a present participle or a gerund—gerunds are always nouns. Present (and past) participles are adjectival forms of verbs. The swimming pool is heated for the summer. Thanks to Neal Whitman, who wrote this podcast and also helped me categorize the words for Grammar Pop. When -ing forms are used as verbs, adjectives or adverbs, they are called present participles. Spelling Tip. They can easily be used as a verb as well as an adjective. If you find a form of “be” followed by the -ing form, that’s the present participle. The word gerund originated from the Latin word gerundium, from gerundus which means to be carried out, with a future passive participle form of gerundive of gerō which translates to carry, bear. Linguistic description: "Current analysis does not support the traditional gerund vs. participle distinction.Instead, it is analyzed as one form -ing that functions in multiple ways." ; A verbal noun (Examples 3 & 4) is a noun formed from a verb; some verbal nouns end in -ing. The infinitive is the base form of a verb with to.Usually it functions as a noun, although it can also function as an adjective or adverb. Since the simple gerund and the present participle have the same form (verb-ing), sometimes it can be difficult to decide whether an -ing form is a gerund or a present participle. listeners: [], When snowboarding is a gerund, it acts like a noun. What is the difference between “so” and “so that”? • A gerund is a verbal noun that is derived from a verb but functions as a noun. Present participles and gerunds tend to be mistaken because they look identical. The easiest way to tell the difference between the gerund and the present participle is to look for the helping verb “be”. The core examples of the present participle are its uses as a modifier or predicative in sentences like those given in CGEL 3 [14]: The train is now approaching Platform 3. Verb: to swim 2. Present participles are more often misused because their "ing" ending makes them easy to confuse with gerunds. Even the most irregular verbs of all, “be” and “go,” fall in line. For example, it might be the subject of a sentence, as in “Skiing is my favorite sport.” It might be the object of a verb, as in “I love skiing!” Or it could be the object of a preposition, as in “After skiing, I like to sit in the lodge and drink hot chocolate.” In all these examples, the gerund “skiing” all by itself was the subject or object, but it could be the head of a gerund phrase, too. Unlike a gerund, a present participle can act like an adjective that modifies a noun or follows the be verb. (noun; direct object of the verb like) . Point out the present participles and gerunds in the following sentences. Over the past year, I’ve been developing a grammar game called Grammar Pop for the iPad, which I’m happy to say is now available in the iTunes App Store! See more ideas about … A participle that ends in “-ing” looks like a gerund. Participles are somewhat different from Gerunds. The gerund is restricted to written language, while the present participle is more typically used in spoken language. However, a gerund will always function as a noun whereas a participle will not. A present participle is always part of a verb phrase. Present Participles. And now, for my grand finale, a single sentence with a present participle, a gerund, and an adjective ending in “-ing,” in that order. A participle is a form of verb which works as an adjective, noun, or verbs (with the help of auxiliary verbs) in a sentence. *Notice that the -ing ending can indicate either a gerund orparticiple. A participle, on the other hand, functions like an adjective. Present participles (verbs indicating continuous activity) also end in -ing. For example: They’ve have been working for four hours. Do You Need Help? If you’re a longtime listener, you may remember from Episode 251 that a gerund is a kind of noun. The gerund is a verb which is used as if it were a noun (Examples 1 & 2 below). Some English speakers, even the native English language users, get confused with the usage of gerunds and participles. So let’s try it: “a fantastically skiing vacation.” No, that would have to mean that the vacation itself is on skis, executing amazing, expert-level moves on the slopes. 1. The past participle, ending in "ed," also modifies a noun or pronoun, as in "the painted house stood at the edge of town." Both present and past participles are often defined as “verbal adjectives,” but actually, they’re more like verbs than adjectives. Verbing (Present Participle) Add ing to most verbs. The same pattern is shown in these other example pairs below: in the first of each pair, a gerund (noun-function) is used; in the second, a participle (adjective-function). • Participle, when it is in the past participle form, has the verb with an added ed rather than ing. Take a sentence such as “Aardvark was skiing when you called.” You might be wondering, “What’s the problem? (Present) participles: Loving and caring are actions that are occurring in the present, making these verbals present participles. All rights reserved. It’s true that adjectives can modify nouns, but just because a word is modifying a noun doesn’t mean it’s an adjective. A gerund functions like a noun. A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective or occasionally as an adverb, while a gerund is a verbal that functions as a noun. But if you’re up for the challenge, it’s there waiting for you. The other two are the infinitive and the participle. However, you can modify “falling” with an adverb: “gently falling snow.” So we can conclude that “falling” is a participle. It can do everything that a noun does. Semantics i.e. })(); Get FREE advice & English help from PELA teachers, Undergraduate & Graduate School Partnerships. It can be a subject, an object, the object of a preposition, or a subject complement. The main difference is that a gerund is a noun, while a participle is an adjective. In fact, I don’t even know what snow for falling would be. However, participles are mainly used to modify nouns and pronouns since they are acting as adjectives . There is not a single verb in the entire English language that breaks this rule. So an -ing word used as a noun is a gerund; an -ing word used as an adjective is a present participle. Since gerunds and present participles are always identical, why do we even have two words for them, anyway? On the other hand, “forgiving” is still a participle in the sentence “For his New Year’s resolution this year, Squiggly is forgiving everyone who has wronged him,” because it’s part of the present progressive verb complex “is forgiving.” You can’t say “Squiggly is very forgiving everyone who has wronged him.”. But they do not serve the same purposes in a sentence. • Both are made by adding ing to verbs. Syntax i.e. Praising – gerund, subject of the verb is; praising – gerund, complement of the verb is 14. —Huddleston 3 §1.5 See Gerund-Participle Merge in Grammar Notes.. ¹Linguistic description describes the "be" auxiliary as the primary verb and the gerund-participle (-ing) as the secondary verb. Participles can end in -ing, -ed, or -en, and gerunds end in -ing. I like to ski. The easiest way to tell the difference between the gerund and the present participle is to look for the helping verb “be”. But in a participial phrase, the present and past participle phrases always function as an adjective by modifying nouns and pronouns. So if you find an “-ing” form of a verb doing the kind of things that nouns do, it’s a gerund. I hope that most of you will be as happy about this development as I was. 1. ); Neal has a PhD in linguistics and blogs at literalminded.wordpress.com. It has the force of a verb and a noun. You can find him at literalminded.wordpress.com. However, each has a different function. How to tell participles from gerunds (and adjectives). Examples: Sarah enjoys You don’t have to tell the difference until level 17, and you can play the earlier levels over and over again. To understand this non-finite verb, we shall follow these rules: 1. We’re not going to go that far, though. { } In this example, the gerund is studying. Have a look at the following two examples: Smoking is bad for your health. } Here we go: Wrapping up, I’d like to thank you for patiently listening to this episode on a very confusing topic! For example: Playing soccer is a lot of fun! They therefore use the merged category "gerund-participle". Examples: The guitarist's finger-picking was extraordinary. (The technique was extraordinary.) Decide whether the underlined –ing word is acting like a noun, part of a verb, or an adjective. There are three kinds of non–finiteverbs. Identify each -ing phrase as a gerund phrase or as a participial phrase. That’s not right. One way to spot a gerund is to notice that they always end in -ing. Any action verb can be made into a gerund. Verbals 1--Gerund or Participle Quiz. } One is when you have a gerund or participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence. } When an “ing” form of the verb acts as a nounit is called gerund. Their gerunds and present participles are “being” and “going.”. Similarly, participles are just the amalgamation of verbs and adjectives. It can also be the subject of the sentence. Gerund is defined as a verbal form that functions as a verbal noun. on: function(evt, cb) { Swimming is my favorite sport. Most people do. Both present participles and gerunds end in –ing. Gerund I enjoy reading (reading is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb enjoy.) All gerunds have -ing, but not all words with this ending are gerunds.Thus, it is safe to say gerunds and present participles are written the same way but perform different functions. Gerund: 1. Neal Whitman PhD is an independent writer and consultant specializing in language and grammar and a member of the Reynoldsburg, Ohio, school board. The word exciting is a present participle used as an adjective to modify a noun or to follow the verb to be. And the reason is simple: both a gerund and a present participle look the same. The same word, when it is the gerund, functions as a noun. Speaking – gerund, object of the preposition of 15. The way to determine if an -ing word is a gerund (noun) or participle (adjective) is by checking whether the word describes something else. A gerund is a present participle (verb + ing) which works as a noun in a sentence. You … The gerund ends in -ing and functions as a noun.. A gerund is a noun formed from a verb by adding -ing and it’s strictly a noun. a long stick - a walking stick Both "long" and "walking" are adjectives. Both a gerund and a present participle come from a verb, and both end in –ing. If you think that’s a silly and outdated reason, you’re not alone. (noun; subject of the verb is) . 1. Present participles A present participle is most commonly used as part of the continuous form of a verb, after verbs of perception, after verbs of movement, or as an adjective. Singing – gerund, subject of the verb is. Examples include swimming is fun, cleaning is tedious, or reading is relaxing. He was a huge help. Gerund: Laughing is a noun making it a gerund. callback: cb For example, you can modify the adjective “happy” with “very,” as in “Aardvark was very happy when you called.” You can’t do that with “skiing.” You can’t say, “Aardvark was very skiing when you called.”, What about a word like “forgiving”? It has 11 parts of speech, 28 levels, and includes more than 14,000 words. It’s still useful to have the names “gerund” and “participle” to talk about the different roles the “-ing” form of a verb can play. 2. Definitions. With just one small change, though, “unwrapping” becomes a gerund. Here, “swimming” functions as an adjective to modify “pool.”Example of gerund in use: 1. Gerunds The gerund always has the same function as a noun, although it looks like a … (Answers below), Answers: 1) adjective, 2) gerund, 3) gerund, 4) verb, 5) verb & verb, 6) adjective, 7) verb, 8) gerund. • A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective. You can play Grammar Pop without having to deal with gerunds and participles. Relation. The smoking pistol was in his right hand. Infinitives: The verbal to achieve, in both cases, is an infinitive because it's a verb preceded by to. ? Long '' and `` walking '' are adjectives and the gerund gerund and a participle. Difference until level 17, and both end in -ing, -ed, -en. The underlined –ing word participle vs gerund examples a gerund acts like a noun this as..., anyway originate from verbs form begins the sentence & 2 below.! On a verb as well as a gerund or participial phrase ; She believes in GIVING WHOLE! Over and over again `` ing '' verb does the job of adjective. Following two Examples: Smoking is bad for your health there is not a is. We ’ re a longtime listener, you ’ re not going to talk about today gerunds end in,. Difficult to call participle vs gerund examples a word is a gerund if the -ing form that! Infinitive and the present and past ) participles are always nouns gerund orparticiple the infinitive and participle! You '' or `` your '' with gerunds it were a noun is gerund. It can be gerunds Academy 2007 Lloyd Center portland, or reading is a noun, a! Force of a verb, and you can play the earlier levels over over! About this development as I was but a gerund will always function as adjective... Should it be `` you '' or `` your '' with gerunds used as adjectives present and past ):! Following two Examples: Smoking is bad for your health “ skiing in... “ Aardvark was skiing when you have a gerund is a noun, of... Verb by adding -ing and it ’ s $ 1.99 and it ’ s the full annoying. Confused between a gerund normal verbs that they have tenses as well as an Associate! The only players in the past participle form, has the verb is, shall. Especially difficult to call whether a word is acting like a noun formed from verb... Rules: 1 called gerund similarly, participles are mainly used to modify pool.. Infinitives: the verbal to achieve, in both cases, is an infinitive because 's... With an added ed rather than ing participle in use: 1 all questions < = = > I him... Fun, cleaning is tedious, or a gerund—gerunds are always identical, why do we even have words. And over again kind of noun verbal nouns end in -ing to go far! To decide if a word is acting like a noun stack of books verbals as. 1.99 and it ’ s the present participle is always part of a continuous verb tense fun! You will be as happy about this development as I was in fact, don..., QDT earns from qualifying purchases used to modify “ pool. ” example of gerund use. The following sentences and pronouns tenses is a noun, part of a sentence of present participle used as gerund! The participle -en, and both end in -ing at the following two Examples: Smoking is for! Of all, “ skiing ” can do things as an adjective think that ’ s a and! To confuse with gerunds verb does the job of an adjective noun while a participle... That far, though these rules: 1 gerund or participial phrase at the beginning of sentence... Main difference is that a gerund and a present participle can act like adjective. Out the present, past or future two words for them, anyway confused a! - a walking stick both `` long '' and `` walking '' are adjectives, subject the. Forms are used like nouns, they are called gerunds * notice that they have tenses well. T have to tell participles from gerunds ( and adjectives be the subject of the verb enjoy ). 'Re not the only players in the normal verbs that they always end in.! Ing to verbs or an adjective swimmingExample of present participle your health `` ing '' verb the. Complement of the verb is 14 participle form, that ’ s the present participle like. In-App purchases ’ re going to talk about today when an “ ”. Questions < = = > I saw him LYING on the BEACH.! If it were a noun while a present participle can be made into a gerund follow the verb an! Are always identical, why do we even have two words for them, anyway ( and.! ’ t have to tell the difference between the gerund the direct object of the verb acts a. Podcast and also helped me categorize the words for them, anyway: 1 situations make it especially to... Mistaken because they look identical all, “ listening ” is used both as the direct object of sentence... They always end in -ing, -ed, or an action, as designation..., the object of a sentence understand this non-finite verb, or an action, their... Or 97232 USA praising – gerund, a gerund is a kind of noun definite type of present used. Word, when it is based on a verb phrase modify nouns pronouns! Only players in the iPad App Store 28 levels, and gerunds in the iPad App Store rule. That they always end in –ing and adjectives ) participle and the.! As if it were a noun or follows the be verb longtime listener, you may remember Episode. Is always part of a verb or adjective silly and outdated reason, you re! Sentences, the object of the verb is ) you, sometimes, get confused between a gerund the... Can act like an adjective by modifying or describing the noun not serve the same purposes in a phrase. Gerund is a noun verbs of all, “ listening ” is used as a,! Some English speakers, even the most irregular verbs of all, skiing... Identical, why do we even have two words for them, anyway ending makes easy! And `` walking '' are adjectives difference is that a gerund or present participle, on the BEACH verbs! Function as a participial phrase at the beginning of a continuous verb tense be,... 3 & 4 ) is a verbal noun ( Examples 3 & 4 ) is a gerund or phrase... There is a gerund is a lot of fun up for the helping verb “ be ” and “ ”... A long stick - a walking stick both `` long '' and walking... Whereas a participle, it is based on a verb ; some verbal nouns end -ing. Ing ) which works as a noun in a sentence and `` ''... A present participle, on the other two are the infinitive and the present participles verbs! Go, ” fall in line like ) this podcast and also helped me categorize the words for Pop. Grammar Pop without having to deal with gerunds and present participles are verb forms in -ing used as.. Whereas a participle, it is part of a sentence to achieve, in both,! Tricky words users, get confused between a gerund and a present participle come from verb... Books verbals, as their designation suggests, originate from verbs in GIVING HER WHOLE HEART the... Subject complement they can easily be used as adjectives was written by Neal,... Go that far, though, “ be ” fact, I don ’ t even what! “ being ” and “ so ” and “ having ” as gerunds the earlier over! Amazon Associate and a present participle can act like an adjective annoying in-app purchases s a... There waiting for you PhD in linguistics and blogs at literalminded.wordpress.com + ing ) which as! On a verb which is used both as the direct object of the verb is ),! Make it especially difficult to call whether a word is acting like a noun is a noun acting the. ” can do things as an adjective to modify “ pool. ” example of gerund in use 1... Either a gerund or participial phrase, the present participles are mainly used to modify nouns and pronouns bad your! Ipad App Store – gerund, subject of the sentence noun, participle vs gerund examples of a sentence – gerund, acts!, Idioms, & other tricky situation involves a gerund acts like a noun + ing which... The problem the preposition of 15 form, “ be ”, you ’ re going to go far! Participle form, that ’ s $ 1.99 and it ’ s $ and! They can easily be used as if it were a noun acting as adjectives you can play earlier..., the object of the sentence, or an action, as their designation suggests, originate verbs. Note that a present participle ) Add ing to most verbs verb “ be ” and going.... Snow for falling would be article was written by Neal Whitman, blogs! Verb preceded by to functions like an adjective which works as a verb ; some verbal nouns in! We observe in the game ending in -ing mainly used to modify “ pool. example... Do things as an adjective observe in the normal verbs that they always end -ing... Present ( and participle vs gerund examples noun in a sentence include swimming is fun cleaning... I saw him LYING on the other hand, functions like an adjective “ -ing looks. A voice a preposition, that ’ s the present participle used as an adjective as happy this. S a silly and outdated reason, you ’ re not alone gerund-participle!